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Moreover, hostility towards the language from neighbours grew following massive migration into the Kathmandu Valley leading to the indigenous Newars becoming a minority. Newars have been fighting to save their language in the face of opposition from the government and hostile neighbours from the time of the repressive Rana regime till today. At various times, the government has forbidden literature in Newar, banned the official use and removed it from the media and the educational system.

Activism has taken the form of publication of books and periodicals to public meets and protest rallies. Writers and language workers have been jailed or expelled from the country, and they have continued the movement abroad. The struggle for linguistic rights has sometimes combined with the movement for religious and political freedom in Nepal. The period between and is considered as the renaissance era of Newar.

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Shukraraj Shastri and Dharmaditya Dharmacharya were also at the forefront of the Renaissance. In , Bajracharya published the first printed book using movable type. Shastri wrote a grammar of the language entitled Nepal Bhasa Vyakaran , the first one in modern times. It was published from Kolkata in Mahaju's translation of the Ramayan and books on morals and ethics, Malla's endeavours to impart education in the native language and other literary activities marked the renaissance.

Also, the Renaissance marked the beginning of the movement to get official recognition for the name "Nepal Bhasa" in place of the Khas imposed term "Newari". The verse states that even a moron can improve with the company of good people just like a drop of water appears like a pearl when it descends upon the leaves of a lotus plant. The years — are known as the jail years for the large number of authors who were imprisoned for their literary or political activities. It was a productive period and resulted in an outpouring of literary works.

Chittadhar Hridaya , Siddhicharan Shrestha and Phatte Bahadur Singh were among the prominent writers of the period who were jailed for their writings. While in prison, Hridaya produced his greatest work Sugata Saurabha , [52] an epic poem on the life of Gautama Buddha. Singh — was sentenced to life imprisonment for editing and publishing an anthology of poems by various poets entitled Nepali Bihar.

The efforts of Newar authors coincided with the revival of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal, which the rulers disliked equally. In , the monks who had been exiled by the Ranas in for teaching Buddhism and writing in Newar were allowed to return following international pressure. Restrictions on publication were relaxed, and books could be published after being censored. The monks wrote wide-ranging books on Buddhism and greatly enriched the corpus of religious literature. Outside the Kathmandu Valley in the s, poets like Ganesh Lal Shrestha of Hetauda composed songs and put on performances during festivals.

Following the overthrow of the Rana dynasty and the advent of democracy in , restrictions on publication in Newar were removed. Books, magazines and newspapers appeared. A daily newspaper Nepal Bhasa Patrika began publication in Nepal Rastriya Vidhyapitha recognised Newar as an alternative medium of instruction in the schools and colleges affiliated to it. Democracy lasted for a brief period, and Newar and other languages of Nepal entered a second dark age with the dissolution of parliament and the imposition of the Panchayat system in Under its policy of "one nation, one language", only the Nepali language was promoted, and all the other languages of Nepal were suppressed as "ethnic" or "local" languages.

In , Kathmandu Municipality's decision to recognize Newar was revoked.

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  7. In , the language was also banned from being broadcast over Radio Nepal. The New Education System Plan brought out in eased out Nepal's other languages from the schools in a bid to diminish the country's multi-lingual traditions.

    The Newar verb in Tibeto-Burman perspective

    The names of these organizations also annoyed the government which, on one occasion in , changed the name of Brihat Nepal Bhasa Sahitya Sammelan Guthi in official media reports. Some lines by the famous poet Durga Lal Shrestha of this era are as follows: [63]. After the People's Movement that brought the Panchayat system to an end, the languages of Nepal enjoyed greater freedom.

    The Nepali language in the Devanagari script was declared the language of the nation and the official language. Meanwhile, all the languages spoken as native languages in Nepal were named national languages. In , Kathmandu Metropolitan City declared that its policy to officially recognize Nepal Bhasa would be revived. The rest of the city governments in the Kathmandu Valley announced that they too would recognize it.

    However, critics petitioned the Supreme Court to have the policy annulled, and in , the Supreme Court quashed the decision of the local bodies as being unconstitutional. A second People's Movement in ousted the Shah dynasty and Nepal became a republic which gave the people greater linguistic freedom. The Interim Constitution states that the use of one's native language in a local body or office shall not be barred. Organizations with names in Newar are not registered, and municipality officials refuse to accept applications written in the language. The restoration of democracy has been marked by the privatization of the media.

    Himalayan Linguistics

    Various people and organizations are working for the development of Newar. The number of schools teaching Newar has increased, and Newar is also being offered in schools outside the Kathmandu Valley. Inscriptions written in Newar occur across Nepal Mandala and outside. Outside Nepal, Newar has been used in Tibet.

    Official documents and inscriptions recording votive offerings made by Newar traders have been found in Lhasa. Newar literature has a long history.

    Nepal Bhasa Bibliography

    Dramas are traditionally performed in open Dabu stage. Most of the traditional dramas are tales related to deities and demons. Masked characters and music are central elements to such dramas. Most of them are narrated with the help of songs sung at intervals. Such dramas resemble dance in many cases. The theme of most dramas is the creation of a social well-being with morals illustrating the rise, turbulence, and fall of evil. There is fixed dates in the Nepal Sambat Nepal Era calendar for the performance of specific drama.

    Most of the dramas are performed by specific Guthis. Poetry writing constituted a pompous part of medieval Malla aristocracy. Many of the kings were well-renowned poets. Siddhidas Mahaju and Chittadhar Hridaya are two great poets in the language. Prose fiction in Newar is a relatively new field of literature compared to other fields.

    Most fiction was written in poetry form until the medieval era. Consequently, almost all prose fiction belongs to the modern Newar era. Collections of short stories in Newar are more popular than novels. The art of verbal story telling is very old in Newar. There are a variety of mythical and social stories that have aided in establishing the norm of Kathmandu valley. Stories ranging from the origin of Kathmandu valley to the temples of the valley and the important monuments have been passed down verbally in Newar and very few exist in written form.

    However, with an increase in the literacy rate and an awareness among the people, folklore stories are being written down. Stories on other topics are also becoming popular. Kansakar [76] recognizes three main Newar dialect clusters. Kansakar also gives the following classification of Newar dialects based on verb conjugation morphology.